Auxiliary Gallery

Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1752 - 1834)

In 1801, a revolutionary silk loom was created in the French silk weaving capital, Lyon, by Joseph-Marie Jacquard. This automated machine, which operated 25 times faster than the old style draw looms for creating intricate patterns and portraits in silk, eventually created a firestorm in Lyon and Jacquard was forced to flee the city to escape rioting weavers who feared their replacement by such an automated system. Jacquard so impressed Napoleon with his invention that he was awarded a small government pension; and in 1819, the French Legion of Honor Cross. The "punched card" system it used would eventually provide the technology for the modern electronic computer. French Jacquard looms, though modernized, are still in use today to produce tapestries, brocades, damasks, and other intricately woven silk fabrics.

Jacquard01 - Portrait of Napoleon in brocade silk

After Louis-Francois, baron Lejeune (1775 - 1848)

As aide-de-camp to a French field General, Lejeune took an active part in many of the Napoleonic campaigns, which he sketched into studies made on the battlefield, eventually to become an important series of intricately painted battle scenes. Napoleon's European campaign of 1806 brought him to Munich, where Lejeune visited the workshop of Johann Alois Senefelder, the inventor of lithography. Senefelder had created a printmaking technique which allowed the artist to draw directly onto the plate with familiar pens rather than engraving copper plates which required advanced craft skills. Lejeune was fascinated by the possibilities of this new method, and was a major contributor to the introduction of the printmaking method into France by having many of his scenes reproduced by in this new way.

Lejeune01 - Battle of the Pyramids

After Antoine-Jean Gros

In 1793, Gros was appointed General Napoleon Bonaparte's official battle painter. He followed Napoleon on his campaigns, made sketches and studies, then produced his massive paintings in his studio. They romanticize Napoleon with glamorous illustration, and are painted with dramatic skill and and identifiable style. After the fall of Napoleon, Gros painted beautiful portraits, but never again reached the the level of expression seen in his battle scenes. Haunted by a sense of failure he drowned himself in the Seine.

Gros01 - His Majesty Haranguing the Army before the Battle of the Pyramids

Braun & Hogenberg

Towards the end of the 16th century, travel literature began to appear for readers who wished to "travel" without leaving home. Publishers were challenged to give their readers pictorial representations of cities that were both pleasing to the eye and true to life. The German and Flemish publishers and printers Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg published their monumental work Civitates orbis Terrarum, a unique publication that included 300 bird's-eye views and plans of the world's major cities. Their work provided "travel" information, the first occurrence of today's "coffee-table" travel books

Cairo city view

David Roberts ( 1796 - 1864 )

Roberts' life was a rags to riches legend in his own lifetime. He was born in Edinburgh, Scotland and began his career as a house painter and theatrical scene painter. He began to travel extensively in 1824, first to France, then to Spain and Algeria, returning to Edinburgh in 1833. His first lithographic publication 'Picturesque sketches in Spain' occurred in 1837 and was an immediate success. Recognizing a growing demand for visual images of exotic lands, Roberts traveled to Egypt in 1838 to illustrate the land of the great Biblical epic of the Exodus. Fascinated by the dramatic impact of the great ancient Egyptian architectural remains against their desert setting, Roberts sketched a living country with a majestic past. He captured nearly every temple and monument, including many which have since been destroyed. When left Egypt, he had accumulated enough sketched material to eventually produce over 124 images. Unsurpassed in their beauty, the hand colored lithographs were published between 1842 and 1849. While the Description de L'Egypte, published 15 years earlier, exposed the exotic ancient land to the French peoples, David Roberts provided a stunning artists interpretation of Egypt to the Anglo-Saxon countries.

Roberts01 - Side View of the Great Sphinx
Roberts02 - Head of the Great Sphinx, Pyramids of Giza
Roberts03 - The Dromos, or First Court of the Temple of Karnak
Roberts04 - Ruins of a Christian Church in the Grand Court of the Temple of Medinet Abou
Roberts05 - Grand Approach to the Temple of Philae

Carle Vernet ( 1758 - 1836 )

Vernet rose to fame during Napoleon's reign with his drawings of Napoleon's Italian campaign and his paintings of "The Battle of Marengo" and "Morning of Austerlitz". After the fall of Napoleon, he was popular as a lithographer and painter of dogs, horses, racing and scenes of the hunt. In 1820, he published an album of engravings of Napoleon era battle scenes "Campagnes des Francais sous le Consulat et LEmpire" from which these hand-colored copper plate engravings are taken.

Vernet01 - Bataille du Mont Thabor, livree le 27 Ventose an 7 (17 Fevrier 1799)
Vernet02 - Bataille d'Heliopolis, livree le 29 Ventose an 8 (20 Mars 1800)
Vernet03 - Bataille d' Aboukir, livree le 7 Thermidor an 7 (25 Juilliet 1799)
Vernet04 - Bataille du Caire, dite des Pyramides livree le 3 Thermidor an 6 (21 Juillet 1798)

James Gillray (1757 - 1815)

Gillray was a British cartoonist well known for his etched political and social satires. They were published between 1792 and 1810 by Miss Hannah Humphrey who owned and operated a print seller shop in London. Gillray lived with her during the entire period of his fame. Gillray's prints would be displayed in the windows of Humphrey's shoppe where crowds of people would gather to examine, discuss, and laugh at them.

Gillray was one of history's top caricaturists. His ludicrous wit and illustrative talent allowed him to sketch works of art that embodied sublime and sometimes course meanings. Following the French Revolution, he issued a number of caricatures ridiculing the French and Napoleon.

His last work came in 1811, after he became mentally incapable of continuing. He died in London on June 1, 1815.

Gillray01 - JOHN BULL taking a Luncheon; - or .....
Gillray02 - The Plumb-pudding in danger; - or .....
Gillray03 - Theologie a la Turque. - the pale of the Church of Mahomet.
Gillray04 - Buonaparte, hearing of Nelson's victory, swears by his sword, .....
Gillray05 - The Hero of the Nile
Gillray06 - Dido in Despair

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